1993 – HP Journal Index

February 1993 v.44 n.1

Cover: A diffraction grating, a piece of glass with 1200 grooves per millimeter etched into its surface.

Photonic Technology for Lightwave Communications Test Applications. State-of-the-art fiber-optic, integrated-optic, bulk-optic, and optoelectronic devices and subsystems provide a technology base for high-speed, high-performance lightwave communications test instrumentation, by Waguih S. Ishak, Kent W. Carey, William R. Trutna, Jr., Steven A. Newton, pg 6-10

Tunable Laser Sources for Optical Amplifier Testing. Two models of laser sources tune over wavelength ranges of 50 and 65 nanometers using grating-tuned external-cavity lasers with precisely controlled wavelength and power level. They are designed for testing wideband components such as erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, by Bernd Maisenbacher, Edgar Leckel, Michael Pott, Robert Jahn, pg 11-19. 8167A, 8168A.

Correction: Two missing lines from page 103 in the December 1992 issue, pg 19

External-Cavity Laser Design and Wavelength Calibration. Sophisticated tuning and calibration methods coordinate the effects of a diffraction grating wavelength selector and a Fabry-Perot etalon side-mode suppression filter to ensure accurate wavelength selection and single-mode operation in the HP 8167A and 8168A tunable laser sources, by Emmerich Muller, Clemens Ruck, Rolf Steiner, Wolfgang Reichert, pg 20-27

External-Cavity Laser Temperature Stabilization and Power Control. The theory and operation of the laser temperature control and measurement circuits and the output power control and calibration of the HP 8167A/68A tunable laser sources are presented, by Edgar Leckel, Horst Schweikardt, pg 28-31

Dual-Output Laser Module for a Tunable Laser Source. This reliable, hermetically sealed laser module is a key component in the HP 8167A and HP 8168A tunable laser sources. The semiconductor laser chip is precisely and stably aligned to two output lenses. One facet of the laser chip is antireflection-coated and has very low residual reflectivity, by Kari K. Salomaa, David M. Braun, Roger L. Jungerman, pg 32-34

Research on External-Cavity Lasers. The external-cavity laser is more complicated than it seems, showing both bistability and multimoding behavior. Thorough detective work was needed to understand this behavior and develop the light source for the HP 8167A and HP 8168A tunable laser sources, by Paul Zorabedian, William R. Trutna, Jr., pg 35-38

Design of a Precision Optical Low-Coherence Reflectometer. The HP 8504A precision reflectometer uses the classic Michelson interferometric measurement technique to allow designers and manufacturers to measure reflections easily in optical components and assemblies. Spatial resolution is on the order of tens of micrometers, by Rollin F. Rawson, Harry Chou, Michael G. Hart, D. Howard Booster, Steven J. Mifsud, pg 39-48

Averaging Measurements to Improve Sensitivity, pg 44-45

Fabrication of Diffused Diodes for HP Lightwave Applications. The simple but robust p-i-n dual detector used in the receiver of the HP 8504A precision reflectometer has -17 dB return loss (2% reflection) operating at both 1300 nm and 1550 nm, by Patricia A. Beck, pg 49-51

High-Resolution and High-Sensitivity Optical Reflection Measurements Using White-Light Interferometry. In the HP 8504A precision reflectometer white-light interferometry is used as a nondestructive measurement technique for probing closely spaced reflections in optical devices, by Wayne V. Sorin, Harry Chou, pg 52-59

A Modular All-Haul Optical Time-Domain Reflectometer for Characterizing Fiber Links. The HP 8146A optical time-domain reflectometer provides good dynamic range and dead-zone performance and user interface features such as comprehensive documentation capabilities and automatic link characterization, by Wilfried Pless, Josef Beller, pg 60-62

A High-Performance Signal Processing System for the HP 8146A Optical Time-Domain Reflectometer. Three custom integrated circuits and a powerful 24-bit digital signal processor offload data processing from the instrument’s host processor, by Josef Beller, pg 63-68

Improving SNR by Averaging, pg 65

Design Considerations for the HP 8146A OTDR Receiver. Low noise, high bandwidth, and good linearity are characteristics that guided the OTDR receiver circuit design, by Frank Maier, pg 69-71

User Interface Design for the HP 8146A OTDR. Based on a multiprocessing operating system, the HP 8146A OTDR software can handle simultaneous executive of instrument operations, hide the complexity of instrument operations from the user, and provide a range of user-friendly features, by Harald Seeger, Robert Jahn, pg 72-78

Analyzing OTDR Traces on a PC with a Windows User Interface, by Wilfried Pless, pg 77

High-Performance Optical Return Loss Measurement. Although high-performance optical return loss measurements pose some tough technical challenges for fiber optic engineers, careful selection of appropriate test equipment and correct setup make precise measurements readily achievable. A new return loss module for the HP 8153A lightwave multimeter simplifies these measurements, by Siegmar Schmidt, pg 79-82

High-Speed Time-Domain Lightwave Detectors. The HP 83440 Series unamplified p-i-n lightwave detectors are designed for the best possible pulse performance. They are dc coupled and have bandwidths of 6, 20, and 32 GHz. They mate directly with high-speed sampling oscilloscopes, by Stephen W. Hinch, David M. Braun, Karl Shubert, Randall King, pg 83-86

InP/InGaAs/InP P-I-N Photodetectors for High-Speed Lightwave Detectors, by Susan Sloan, pg 85

Calibration of Lightwave Detectors to 50 GHz. Because they operate at much higher frequencies than previous products, new methods had to be found to test and calibrate the HP 83440 Series lightwave detectors. Three systems were developed. Their results agree closely, by Kok Wai Chang, Christopher J. Madden, David J. McQuate, pg 87-92

Authors February 1993: Waguih S. Ishak, Kent W. Carey, Steven [Steve] A. Newton, Bernd Maisenbacher, Robert Jahn, Michael Pott, Emmerich Muller, Wolfgang Reichert, Clemens Ruck, Rolf Steiner, Horst Schweikardt, Edgar Leckel, Roger L. Jungerman, Kari K. Salomaa, William [Rick] R. Trutna, Jr., Paul Zorabedian, D. Howard Booster, Michael [Mike] G. Hart, Steven [Steve] J. Mifsud, Rollin [Fred] F. Rawson, Patricia [Patti] A. Beck, Harry Chou, Wayne V. Sorin, Josef Beller, Wilfried Pless, Frank A. Maier, Harald Seeger, Siegmar Schmidt, Randall [Randy] King, David M. Braun, Stephen [Steve] W. Hinch, Karl Shubert, David J. McQuate, Kok [Bill] Wai Chang, Christopher [Chris] J. Madden, pg 92-96

April 1993 v.44 n.2

Cover: The advanced microwave synthesized signal generators, sweep oscillators, and pulse generator featured in this issue depend on state-of-the art hybrid microcircuit technology for performance, reliability, and economy. On the cover, some of the microcircuits developed for these products pose for a group photograph.

A New Family of Microwave Signal Generators for the 1990s. This family of generators includes both stand-alone and modular versions. A new architecture and state-of-the-art technologies result in advanced performance, by William W. Heinz, Ronald E. Pratt, Peter H. Fisher, pg 6-11. 8370, 70340 Series.

Broadband Fundamental Frequency Synthesis from 2 to 20 GHz. A broadband fundamental YIG-tuned oscillator is locked to a stable reference and controlled by four phase-locked loops to produce the low-phase-noise output signal of the HP 8370 and 70340 signal generators, by Edward G. Cristal, Thomas L. Grisell, Brian R. Short, pg 12-16

A New High-Performance 0.01-to-20-GHz Synthesized Signal Generator Microwave Chain. Driven by a broadband YIG oscillator, the microwave chain only divides the oscillator output instead of multiplying and heterodyning like previous designs. The benefits include no subharmonics and higher-performance pulse and amplitude modulation. The major functions of the microwave chain are integrated on two microcircuits, by William D. Baumgartner, John S. Brenneman, John L. Imperato, Douglas A. Larson, Ricardo de Mello Peregrino, Gregory A. Taylor, pg 17-29. 8370, 70340 Series.

Internal Pulse Generator, by Douglas A. Larson, pg 27-28

Concurrent Signal Generator Engineering and Manufacturing. Production tests were developed early enough to be used for design characterization. Several new production processes were developed. The project had a design-for-assembly philosophy, an integrated assembly and pretest strategy, online video-image production procedures, and a networked computing test environment, by Kevin G. Smith, Camala S. Kolseth, Christopher J. Bostak, pg 30-37. 8370, 70340 Series.

A Design for Manufacturability, Design for Testability Checklist, pg 33

A New Generation of Microwave Sweepers. The HP 83750 family of microwave sweepers achieves a new level of swept frequency accuracy by being full synthesized in all sweep modes, including fast analog sweeps. It also uses fundamental oscillators for improved signal purity, by Jason A. Chodora, Alan R. Bloom, James R. Zellers, pg 38-45

Third-Order Curve-Fit Algorithm, by Alan Bloom, pg 41

A Digitally Corrected Fractional-N synthesizer, by Jason Chodora, pg 44

Microcircuits for the HP 83750 Series Sweepers. Four custom microcircuits provide the basic output signal, the RF band, signal switching and distribution, amplification, ALC and pulse modulation, power amplification, and two stages of YIG filtering, by Rick R. James, Eric V.V. Heyman, Roger R. Graeber, pg 46-51

A Programmable 3-GHz Pulse Generator. This new one-or-two channel pulse generator provides precise edge placement, extensive functionality, and an interactive user interface. It is designed to help characterize and debug CMOS, ECL, and GaAs devices and signal integrity problems, by Hans-Jurgen Wagner, pg 52-55. 8133A.

Pulse/Data Channel Extends Programmable Pulse Generator Applications. This optional second channel for the HP 8133A pulse generator has a dividable square wave mode, a 32-bit data burst mode, and a pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) mode. Its major components are a data gate array, a multiplexer, a phase-locked loop, and an output section. Most circuits are ECL, by Christoph Kalkuhl, pg 56-59

Design of a 3-GHz Pulse Generator. Period, delay, and width generation for the HP 8133A pulse generator depend on several thick-film and thin-film hybrid circuits and custom GaAs and bipolar ICs. The high frequencies and fast transitions made radiated interference suppression challenging, by Peter Schinzel, Allan R. Armstrong, Thomas Fischer, Thomas Dippon , Andreas Pfaff, pg 60-72

Cooling of the Frequency Divider IC, by Thomas Fischer, pg 61

A Multirate Bank of Digital Bandpass Filters for Acoustic Applications. Real-time frequency analyzers have been used for over twenty years for acoustic noise measurements. Recent advances in digital signal processing technology have improved the performance and usefulness of these analyzers. The HP 3569A portable real-time frequency analyzer, for example, makes complex acoustical measurements easier and more affordable than ever before, by James W. Waite, pg 73-81

Continuous Monitoring of Remote Networks: The RMON MIB. An introduction to the capabilities of the Remote Monitoring Management Information Base of the Simple Network Management Protocol and its implementation in the HP LanProbe II network monitor, by Matthew J. Burdick, pg 82-89

The HP 64700 Embedded Debug Environment: A New Paradigm for Embedded System Integration and Debugging. The HP 64700 embedded debug environment gives embedded system developers complete access to state-of-the-art real-time measurements and controls in addition to C and C++ static debugging capabilities on HP and Sun workstations, by Robert D. Gronlund, Richard A. Nygaard, Jr., John T. Rasper, pg 90-106

The Value of Usability, by John D’Alessandro, pg 91

The Debug Environment Connection to HP SoftBench, by David L. Neuder, pg 93

A Real-Time Operating System Measurement Tool, by Mike Dotseth, pg 97-98

A New Perspective on Emulation Hardware Modularity, by Thomas C. Ferguson, pg 102

Software Performance Analysis of Real-Time Embedded Systems. The HP B1487 software performance analyzer is a plug-in card for the HP 64700 emulator system. It makes activity and interval measurements on instrumented code for embedded microprocessor systems. The design is able to deal with difficult analysis situations involving caches and prefetches, by Arnold S. Berger, David L. Neuder, Andrew J. Blasciak, pg 107-115

Authors April 1993: William [Bill] W. Heinz, Ronald [Ron] E. Pratt, Peter H. Fisher, Brian R. Short, Thomas [Tom] L. Grisell, Edward [Bud] G. Cristal, William [Bill] D. Baumgartner, John S. Brenneman, John L. Imperato, Douglas A. Larson, Ricardo [Ric] de Mello Peregrino, Gregory [Greg] A. Taylor, Christopher [Chris] J. Bostak, Camala [Cam] S. Kolseth, Kevin G. Smith, Alan R. Bloom, Jason A. Chodora, James [Jim] R. Zellers, Eric V. V. Heyman, Rick R. James, Roger R. Graeber, Hans-Jurgen Wagner, Christoph Kalkuhl, Peter Schinzel, Andreas Pfaff, Thomas Dippon, Thomas Fischer, Allan R. Armstrong, James [Jim] W. Waite, Mathew [Matt] J. Burdick, Robert [Bob] D. Gronlund, Richard [Rick] A. Nygaard, Jr., John T. Rasper, Andrew [Andy] J. Blasciak, David [Dave] L. Neuder, Arnold [Arnie] S. Berger, pg 116-120

June 1993 v.44 n.3

Cover: The HP ORCA analytical robot in action

ORCA: Optimized Robot for Chemical Analysis. This analytical PC peripheral is a congenial assistant, a sophisticated robotic teaching environment, and an interesting study of robotic architecture. Although optimized for the analytical laboratory, it also has applications in electronic test, quality assurance, and the clinical laboratory, where heavy commercial assembly robots are unsuitable, by Arthur Schleifer, Gary B. Gordon, Joseph C. Roark, pg 6-19

The HP ORCA System Outside the Analytical Laboratory, by Nancy Adams, pg 9

Gravity-Sensing Joy Stick, pg 12

Absolute Digital Encoder, pg 14

HP OpenODB: An Object-Oriented Database Management System for Commercial Applications. The functionality of object-oriented technology and basic relational database features such as access control, recovery, and a query language are provided in HP OpenODB, by Tu-Ting Cheng, Rafiul Ahad, pg 20-30

The HP Ultra VGA Graphics Board. By increasing the display memory to 1M byte and providing some local graphics processing, the HP Ultra VGA board is able to increase VGA resolution to 1024 by 768 pixel with 256 colors at all resolutions, by Myron R. Tuttle, Kenneth M. Wilson, Samuel H. Chau, Yong Deng, pg 31-40. D2325A.

POSIX Interface for MPE/iX. Differences in directory structure, file naming conventions, and security were among the areas in which mechanisms had to be developed to enable the POSIX and MPE XL interfaces to coexist on one operating system, by Rajesh Lalwani, pg 41-46. Portable Operating System Interface.

A Process for Preventing Software Hazards. Preventing software hazards in safety-critical medical instrumentation requires a process that identifies potential hazards early and tracks them throughout the entire development process, by Brian Connolly, pg 47-52

Configuration Management for Software Tests. To support software test reuse and to make it easier to ensure that the correct software versions are used to test printer products, a software test management system has been put in place, by Leonard T. Schroath, pg 53-59. TLMS, Test Library Management System.

Implementing and Sustaining a Software Inspection Program in an R&D Environment. Although software inspections have become a common practice in the software development process, introducing the inspection process and sustaining and measuring its success are still challenges, by Jean M. MacLeod, pg 60-63

The Use of Total Quality Control Techniques to Improve the Software Localization Process. By implementing a few inexpensive process improvement steps, the time involved in doing translations for text used in HP’s medical products has been significantly reduced, by John W. Goodnow, William A. Koppes, Cindie A. Hammond, John J. Krieger, D. Kris Rovell-Rixx, Sandra J. Warner, pg 64-70. TQC.

Tools for the Language Translation Process, by George Rom, pg 68-69

A Transaction Approach to Error Handling. The transaction-based recovery concept used in databases can be applied to commercial applications to help provide more reusable and maintainable programs, by Bruce A. Rafnel, pg 71-77

Error Definition, pg 72

Authors June 1993: Gary B. Gordon, Joseph [Joe] C. Roark, Arthur [Artie] Schleifer, Rafiul Ahad, Tu-Ting Cheng, Myron R. Tuttle, Kenneth [Ken] M. Wilson, Samuel [Sam] H. Chau, Yong Deng, Rajesh Lalwani, Brian Connolly, Leonard [Len] T. Schroath, Jean M. MacLeod, John W. Goodnow, Cindie A. Hammond, William [Bill] A. Koppes, John J. Krieger, Daniel Kris Rovell-Rixx, Sandra [Sandy] J. Warner, Bruce A. Rafnel, Mark H. Notess, pg 77-79

User Interface Management System for HP-UX System Administration Applications. Developing applications to simplify HP-UX system administration has been made easier by the creation of a tool that addresses the needs of the developer, by Mark H. Notess, pg 80-84

SAM versus Manual Administration, pg 81

August 1993 v.44 n.4

Cover: This photograph illustrates many of the features of the new HP AllnGaP light-emitting diodes.

High-Efficiency Aluminum Indium Gallium Phosphide Light Emitting Diodes. These devices span the color range from red-orange to green and have the highest luminous performance of any visible LED to date. They are produced by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy, by Virginia M. Robbins, Timothy D. Osentowski, Chihping Kuo, Jiann Gwo Yu, Robert M. Fletcher, pg 6-14. LEDs.

The Structure of LEDs: Homojunctions and Heterojunctions, pg 8-9

HP Task Broker: A Tool for Distributing Computational Tasks. Intelligent distribution of computation tasks, collective computing, load balancing, and heterogeneity are some of the features provided in the Task Broker tool to help make existing hardware more efficient and software developers more productive, by James J. Turne, John M. Lewis, Edward J. Sharpe, Renato G. Assini, Terrence P. Graf, Michael C. Ward, pg 15-22

HP Task Broker and Computational Clusters, pg 16

Task Broker and DCE Interoperability, pg 19

HP Task Broker Version 1.1, pg 21

The HP-RT Real-Time Operating System. An operating system that is compatible with the HP-UX operating system through compliance with the POSIX industry standards uses a multi-threaded kernel and other mechanisms to provide guaranteed real-time response to high-priority operations, by Kevin D. Morgan, pg 23-30

An Overview of Threads, pg 27

Managing PA-RISC Machines for Real-Time Systems. In the HP-RT operating system, the interrupt-handling architecture is especially constructed to manage the high-performance timing requirements of real-time systems, by George A. Anzinger, pg 31-37. HP-RT.

Context Switching in HP-RT, pg 32

Protecting Shared Data Structures, pg 33

The Shadow Register Environment, pg 34

C Environment, pg 35

The HP Tsutsuji Logic Synthesis System. A new logic synthesis system has reduced the time to design ASICs by a factor of ten, by Yoshisuke Otsuru, J. Barry Shackleford, W. Bruce Culbertson, Motoo Tanaka, Toshiki Osame, pg 38-51

Designing a Scanner with Color Vision. The challenge for personal computer imaging today is to duplicate human color vision, not only in scanners but also in monitors and printers so that colors look the same in all media. The HP ScanJet IIc scanner uses a proprietary color separator design to provide fast, single-scan, 400-dpi, 24-bit color image scanning, by Michael J. Steinle, K. Douglas Gennetten, pg 52-58

Authors August 1993: Robert [Bob] M. Fletcher, Chihping [C. P.] Kuo, Timothy [Tim] D. Osentowski, Jiann Gwo Yu, Virginia M. Robbins, Terrence [Terry] P. Graf, Renato [Ron] G. Assini, Edward [Ed] J. Sharpe, John M. Lewis, James J. Turner, Michael [Mike] C. Ward, Kevin D. Morgan, George A. Anzinger, W. Bruce Culbertson, Toshiki Osame, Yoshisuke Otsuru, J. Barry Shackleford, Motoo Tanaka, K. Douglas Gennetten, Michael [Mike] J. Steinle, Brad Clements, Franco A. Canestri, David [Dave] A. Keefer, Brian E. Hoffmann, Douglas [Doug] K. Howell, Timothy [Tim] C. O’Konski, Joseph [Joe] M. Luszcz, Daniel [Dan] G. Maier, pg 58-61

Mechanical Considerations for an Industrial Workstation. Besides being a compute and data processing engine, a workstation in an industrial and measurement environment must be mechanically designed to handle the special requirements of these environments, by Brad Clements, pg 62-67. HP 9000 Models 745i, 747i.

Online CO2 Laser Beam Real Time Control Algorithm for Orthopedic Surgical Applications. New data obtained from treating polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) with a nonmoving, CW, 10-watt, C02 laser beam is presented. Guidelines based on this data can be used during precision laser surgery in orthopedics to avoid unnecessary mechanical and thermal trauma to healthy bone tissue. A computerized algorithm incorporating these guidelines can be implemented on an HP 9000 workstation connected to a central database for multiple-operating-room data collection, online consultation and analysis, by Franco A. Canestri, pg 68-72

Online Defect Management via a Client/Server Relational Database Management System. The ability to provide timely access to large volumes of data, ensure data and process integrity, and share defect data among related projects are the main features provided in this new defect management system, by David A. Keefer, Douglas K. Howell, Brian E. Hoffmann, pg 73-84. DMS.

Client/Server Database Architecture, pg 78-79

Realizing Productivity Gains with C++. Although C++ contains many features for supporting highly productive software development, some characteristics of this object-oriented programming language tend to slow the realization of these productivity gains, by Timothy C. O’Konski, pg 85-89

Glossary, pg 86

Bridging the Gap between Structured Analysis and Structured Design for Real Time Systems. A real-time software design technique has been applied to the design of the software architecture for ultrasound imaging products, by Joseph M. Luszcz, Daniel G. Maier, pg 90-99. SA, SD, ADARTS.

Structured Analysis and Structured Design Refresher, pg 92-93

October 1993 v.44 n.5

Cover: The acquisition hybrid microcircuit of the HP 54720D and HP 54710D oscilloscopes

An 8-Gigasample-per-Second Modular Digitizing Oscilloscope System. For the first time, a digitizing sampling oscilloscope achieves single-shot bandwidths exceeding even the fastest laboratory analog oscilloscopes. The HP 54720/10 oscilloscope combines a 2-GSa/s digitizer, plug-in modularity, and software flexibility to provide the application-specific and general-purpose capabilities needed by designers of high-speed digital devices and systems, by John A. Scharrer, pg 6-10

An 8-Gigasample-per-Second, 8-Bit Data Acquisition System for a Sampling Digital Oscilloscope. Within the HP 54720/10 acquisition system are sixteen separate sampling and digitizing paths that can be allocated by the user to capture 16K samples at 8 GSa/s or 256K samples at 500 MSa/s or any of various other combinations of sample rate and memory depth. The sample-and-filter sampling technique is an alternative to the conventional sample-and-hold and track-and-hold techniques, by Patrick J. Byrne, Michael T. McTigue, pg 11-23

A Digitizing Oscilloscope Time Base and Trigger System Optimized for Throughput and Low Jitter. Careful attention to low-noise coupling results in robust performance far exceeding what is normally considered possible with off-the-shelf ECL. A new interpolator design increases resolution by a factor of ten, reduces conversion time by a factor of five, and reduces jitter by a factor of more than three compared with previous designs, by Reginald Kellum, Donald A. Whiteman, David D. Eskeldson, pg 24-30. 54720/10.

A Rugged 2.5-GHz Active Oscilloscope Probe. Superior electrical performance is maintained by suspending a fragile electrical structure inside a rugged package and isolating the fragile parts from external abuse. The design required numerous trade-offs between performance, durability, aesthetics, and cost, with performance and ruggedness the primary goals, by Thomas F. Uhling, John R. Sterner, pg 31-37. 54701A.

Accuracy in Interleaved ADC Systems. The overall performance of the HP 54720 oscilloscope is the result of the synergistic effects of calibration, signal preconditioning, and data postprocessing, by Allen Montijo, Kenneth Rush, pg 38-46

Dither and Bits, by Kenneth Rush, pg 42-43

Filter Design for Interpolation, by Allen Montijo, pg 45

A Study of Pulse Parameter Accuracy in Real Time Digitizing Oscilloscope Measurements. Using the well-characterized 50-GHz HP 54124T oscilloscope as a standard, HP 54720A oscilloscope errors were measured for single-shot step rise time, pulse width, and pulse height measurements. The results suggest that the errors have systematic or bias components that may be characterizable and correctable, by Kenneth Rush, pg 47-50

Architectural Design for a Modular Oscilloscope System. Optimum allocation of tasks to various software and hardware subsystems, a separate display processor, multiple lookthrough tables, flicker reduction techniques, and other design features support the performance of the HP 54720/10 oscilloscope and establish it as a platform for the future, by Christopher J. Magnuson, Dana L. Johnson, pg 51-58

A Survey of Processes Used in the Development of Firmware for a Multiprocessor Embedded System. In using structured design methods to develop a large multiprocessor embedded system, the HP 54720/10 oscilloscope design team learned that these methodologies can be very helpful if applied appropriately and supplemented with a few other processes and tools, by Christopher P. Duff, David W. Long, pg 59-65

Developing Extensible Firmware, by Rodney T. Schlater, pg 64-65

Mechanical Design of a New Oscilloscope Mainframe for Optimum Performance. A completely new mainframe design for the HP 54720/10 oscilloscopes includes a unibody chassis and four plug-in slots that provide superior EMI performance and anticipate future enhancements, by Wayne F. Helgoth, John W. Campbell, Kenneth W. Johnson, William H. Escovitz, pg 66-72

A Probe Fixture for Wafer Testing High-Performance Data Acquisition Integrated Circuits. This new probe fixture offers both a wide bandwidth and a high probe count, along with flexible interfacing and low maintenance. The fixture is used to perform at-speed wafer testing of the data acquisition circuits for the HP 54720/10 oscilloscope, by Daniel T. Hamling, pg 73-75

A High-Performance 1.8-GHz Vector Network and Spectrum Analyzer. Network and spectrum analyzers are frequently used together for RF component and circuit evaluation. The HP 4396A vector network and spectrum analyzer exploits this natural union by combining the two measurement modes into one instrument, by Akira Nukiyama, Shigeru Kawabata, pg 76-84

Receiver Design for a Combined RF Network and Spectrum Analyzer. A low noise floor, reduction of distortion and local oscillator feedthrough, and removal of image frequencies and higher-order harmonic products were the main design objectives for the HP 4396A receiver, by Yoshiyuki Yanagimoto, pg 85-94

DSP Techniques for Digital IF, by Akira Nukiyama, pg 90-91

A Fast-Switching, High-Isolation Multiplexer. A three-channel multiplexer with 140-dB isolation between channels, fast switching transient settling time, steady low return loss, and low noise and distortion provide the front end to the single receiver of the HP 4396A network and spectrum analyzer, by Yoshiyuki Yanagimoto, pg 95-99

A 10-Megasample-per-Second Analog-to-Digital Converter with Filter and Memory. In addition to analog-to-digital conversion, the HP E1430A addresses the problems of gain ranging, anti-aliasing protection, frequency band selection, triggering, data buffering and multichannel synchronization, by Howard E. Hilton, pg 100-104

A 10-MHz Analog-to-Digital Converter with 1100-dB Linearity. A classification outline is presented for the errors found in an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). A comparative analysis is done of errors caused by random noise, nonlinearities, and finite amplitude resolution (quantizing errors). An ADC implementation is presented that substantially reduces the nonlinearity errors and virtually eliminates the quantizing errors, by Howard E. Hilton, pg 105-112

Authors October 1993: John A. Scharrer, Michael [Mike] T. McTigue, Patrick J. Byrne, David D. Eskeldson, Reginald [Reggie] Kellum, Donald [Don] A. Whiteman, Thomas [Tom] F. Uhling, John R. Sterner, Allen Montijo, Kenneth [Ken] Rush, Dana L. Johnson, Christopher [Chris] J. Magnuson, David W. Long, Christopher [Chris] P. Duff, John W. Campbell, Kenneth [Kenny] W. Johnson, Wayne F. Helgoth, William [Bill] H. Escovitz, Daniel [Dan] T. Hamling, Shigeru Kawabata, Akira [Nuki] Nukiyama, Yoshiyuki [Yoshi] Yanagimoto, Howard E. Hilton, pg 113-115

December 1993 v.44 n.6

Cover: This spectrogram display represents more than 300 spectrum measurements covering the first 20 milliseconds of the turn-on-transient of a marine-band handheld transmitter

Vector Signal Analyzers for Difficult Measurements on Time-Varying and Complex Modulated Signals. Called vector analyzers for their ability to quadrature detect an input signal and measure its magnitude and phase, these new analyzers offer conventional spectrum analysis capabilities along with a full set of measurement based on digital signal processing. The three-processor architecture includes a frequency selective front end and a digital IF section, by Kenneth J. Blue, Robert T. Cutler, Dennis P. O’Brien Douglas R. Wagner, Benjamin R. Zarlingo, pg 6-16

The Resampling Process, by Robert T. Cutler, pg 10

Applications for Demodulation, by Timothy L. Hillstrom, pg 12-13

A Firmware Architecture for Multiple High-Performance Measurements. The HP 894xxA vector signal analyzers perform fast, sophisticated measurements on complex waveforms. The firmware architecture provides access to multiple processors to meet the high-performance requirements while allowing individual measurements to share common features and protocol, by Dennis P. O’Brien, pg 17-30

Run-Time Configurable Hardware Drivers, by Glenn R. Engel, pg 20-21

Remote Debugging, by Glenn R. Engel, pg 29

Baseband Vector Signal Analyzer Hardware Design. The HP 89410A combines superior front-end linearity and high-speed data conversion with powerful digital signal processing to provide advanced measurement capabilities. Extensive calibration, flexible triggering and arbitrary source types provide the accuracy and versatility needed to make the sophisticated measurements required for complex signal analysis at RF information bandwidths, by David F. Kelley, Joseph R. Diederichs, Manfred Bartz, Keith A. Bayern, pg 31-46

ADC Bits, Distortion, and Dynamic Range, by Manfred Bartz, pg 38-39

What Is Dithering?, by Manfred Bartz, pg 44-45

RF Vector Signal Analyzer Hardware Design. Based on the HP 89410A baseband vector signal analyzer, the HP 89440A RF vector signal analyzer extends the frequency range of both receiver and source to 1.8 GHz with a 7-MHz information bandwidth. All of the vector capabilities of the 10-MHz baseband instrument (up to a 7-MHz information bandwidth) can be translated to any frequency from 0 to 1.8 GHz, by Timothy L. Hillstrom, James Pietsch, Roy L. Mason, William J. Ginder, Kevin L. Johnson, Robert T. Cutler, pg 47-59

Microwave Plate Assembly, by Roy L. Mason, pg 50

A Versatile Tracking and Arbitrary Source, by Don Hiller, pg 54-55

Vector Measurements beyond 1.8 GHz, by Joe Tarantino, pg 58

Optical Spectrum Analyzers with High Dynamic Range and Excellent Input Sensitivity. The diffraction-grating-based HP 71450A and 71451A optical spectrum analyzers provide the basic spectral measurement of optical power versus wavelength, and advanced functions for measuring and characterizing LEDs, DFB Lasers, and Fabry-Perot lasers, by David A. Bailey, James R. Stimple, pg 60-67

Optical Spectrum Analysis, pg 62

A Double-Pass Monochromator for Wavelength Selection in an Optical Spectrum Analyzer. The wavelength-selection scheme used in the HP 71450A and HP 71451A optical spectrum analyzers propagates the light from the device under test twice through the refraction and diffraction elements in the monochromator, by Kenneth R. Wildnauer, Zoltan Azary, pg 68-74

Diffraction Grating, pg 70

Polarization Sensitivity, pg 71

A High-Resolution Direct-Drive Diffraction Grating Rotation System. Creating a high-resolution, high-speed positioning system that can provide over two million data points per revolution of the diffraction grating required a design that is much different from the gear-reduction positioning systems typically used in optical spectrum analyzers, by Joseph N. West, J. Douglas Knight, pg 75-79. 71450A, 71451A.

A Two-Axis Micropositioner for Optical Fiber Alignment. A positioning system with submicron resolution is used to keep the output fiber accurately aligned with the light coming out of the monochromator during movement of the diffraction grating, by J. Douglas Knight, Joseph N. West, pg 80-84. 71450A, 71451A.

A Standard Data Format for Instrument Data Interchange. This standard format allows many HP analyzers to exchange data with each other and with applications software. Utilities provide data conversion, editing, viewing, and plotting and a function library provides access to SDF data from programs, by Michael L. Hall, pg 85-89. SDF.

North American Cellular CDMA. Code division multiple access (CDMA) is a class of modulation that uses specialized codes to provide multiple communication channels in a designated segment of the electromagnetic spectrum. This article describes the implementation of CDMA that has been standardized by the Telecommunications Industry Association for the North American cellular telephone system, by David P. Whipple, pg 90-97

Cellular Technologies, pg 92

DECT Measurements with a Microwave Spectrum Analyzer. An HP 8590 E-Series spectrum analyzer with DECT source, demodulator, and measurement personality can be used to provide a cost-effective solution to development, manufacturing, and pre-type-approval testing for compliance with the Digital European Cordless Telecommunications standard, by Mark A. Elo, pg 98-106

Index: Volume 44 January 1993 through December 1993. PART 1: Chronological Index, pg 107-109. PART 2: Subject Index, pg 109-113. PART 3: Product Index, pg 113. PART 4: Author Index, pg 114-115

Authors December 1993: Kenneth [Ken] J. Blue, Robert [Bob] T. Cutler, Douglas [Doug] R. Wagner, Benjamin [Ben] R. Zarlingo, Dennis P. O’Brien, Manfred Bartz, Keith A. Bayern, Joseph [Joe] R. Diederichs, David [Dave] F. Kelley, William [Bill] J. Ginder, Timothy [Tim] L. Hillstrom, Kevin L. Johnson, Roy L. Mason, James [Jim] K. Pietsch, David [Dave] A. Bailey, James [Jim] R. Stimple, Kenneth [Kenn] R. Wildnauer, Zoltan Azary, Joseph [Joe] N. West, J. Douglas [Doug] Knight, Michael [Mike]